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精密冲压和普通冲压的区别在哪里

精密冲压和普通冲压的区别在哪里

发布日期:2017-07-11 作者:福磁电子 点击:

冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)是借助于常规或专用冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)设备的(de)(de)(de)动力(li),使(shi)板料在模(mo)(mo)具(ju)里(li)直接受到(dao)变(bian)形(xing)(xing)力(li)并进行变(bian)形(xing)(xing),从(cong)而获得一定(ding)形(xing)(xing)状,尺寸(cun)和性能的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)技术。它是金属塑性加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(或压(ya)(ya)力(li)加(jia)工(gong)(gong))的(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)之一,冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)与模(mo)(mo)具(ju)、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)设备、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)油和冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)材料构(gou)成冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)四要(yao)素,只(zhi)有它们(men)相互结(jie)合才能得出质(zhi)量(liang)可(ke)靠(kao)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)。与机械加(jia)工(gong)(gong)及塑性加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)其它方(fang)(fang)法(fa)相比,冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)无论在技术方(fang)(fang)面(mian)还是经济方(fang)(fang)面(mian)都具(ju)有许多独特的(de)(de)(de)优点。主要(yao)表(biao)现(xian)如下:

(1)冲(chong)压(ya)加(jia)工的生产(chan)效(xiao)率(lv)高,且操作(zuo)方(fang)便,易于实现机械化与自动化。这是(shi)因为冲(chong)压(ya)是(shi)依靠(kao)冲(chong)模和冲(chong)压(ya)设(she)备(bei)来完成(cheng)加(jia)工,普通压(ya)力机的行程次(ci)数为每(mei)分(fen)钟(zhong)可(ke)达几十(shi)次(ci),高速压(ya)力要每(mei)分(fen)钟(zhong)可(ke)达数百次(ci)甚至千次(ci)以上,而(er)且每(mei)次(ci)冲(chong)压(ya)行程就可(ke)能得到一个冲(chong)件。

(2) 冲压(ya)(ya)时由于模(mo)(mo)具(ju)保证了冲压(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)尺寸与形状精度,且一(yi)般不破坏(huai)冲压(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)表(biao)面(mian)质量,而模(mo)(mo)具(ju)的(de)寿命一(yi)般较长,所以冲压(ya)(ya)的(de)质量稳定,互(hu)换性好,具(ju)有(you)“一(yi)模(mo)(mo)一(yi)样”的(de)特征。

(3) 冲压(ya)可(ke)加工出尺寸范围(wei)较大(da)、形状较复杂的(de)零件,如小到(dao)钟(zhong)表的(de)秒表,大(da)到(dao)汽(qi)车纵梁、覆(fu)盖件等,加上冲压(ya)时(shi)材料(liao)的(de)冷变形硬化效(xiao)应,冲压(ya)的(de)强度(du)和刚度(du)均(jun)较高。

(4) 冲压(ya)一般没(mei)有(you)切屑碎料生成(cheng),材料的(de)(de)消耗较少(shao),且(qie)不需其它加热设备,因而是一种省(sheng)料,节(jie)能的(de)(de)加工方法(fa),冲压(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)成(cheng)本较低。

但是(shi),冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)加(jia)工(gong)所(suo)使用(yong)的模(mo)(mo)具(ju)一(yi)般具(ju)有专(zhuan)用(yong)性,有时(shi)一(yi)个(ge)复杂零件需(xu)要(yao)数(shu)套模(mo)(mo)具(ju)才能(neng)(neng)加(jia)工(gong)成形,且模(mo)(mo)具(ju)制造(zao)的精(jing)(jing)(jing)度高,技(ji)术要(yao)求(qiu)高,是(shi)技(ji)术密(mi)(mi)集形产品。所(suo)以只(zhi)有在冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)件生产批量较(jiao)大的情况下,冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)加(jia)工(gong)的优(you)点才能(neng)(neng)充分体现,从而获得(de)较(jiao)好的经济效益的。冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)加(jia)工(gong)可分为精(jing)(jing)(jing)密(mi)(mi)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)和普(pu)通(tong)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya),那么(me)什么(me)是(shi)精(jing)(jing)(jing)密(mi)(mi)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)和普(pu)通(tong)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)区别(bie)在哪(na)里:

(1)精(jing)密(mi)冲压(ya)是(shi)在普通(tong)冲压(ya)工艺(yi)的基础上发展起来的一种物(wu)料加工方法,它是(shi)通(tong)过提高(gao)导向(xiang)精(jing)度,减小凸凹模间(jian)隙(xi),增(zeng)加反向(xiang)压(ya)力(li)和(he)V形(xing)环压(ya)边圈等工艺(yi)措施,造成(cheng)在强烈的三向(xiang)压(ya)应力(li)状态(tai)条件(jian)(jian)下(xia),实现精(jing)密(mi)冲压(ya)或精(jing)密(mi)冲压(ya)与其他成(cheng)形(xing)工艺(yi)复合的工序,获得精(jing)密(mi)冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian)。

(2)精(jing)(jing)密冲压(ya)对冲压(ya)件精(jing)(jing)度要求(qiu)(qiu)较高(gao)在加工(gong)生(sheng)产过程(cheng)中,冲压(ya)卷料或成形,必须考虑合适的精(jing)(jing)密冲床(chuang)、模(mo)具、材(cai)料、冲压(ya)油等的技术配套,要求(qiu)(qiu)较高(gao)。

(3)普(pu)通冲(chong)压(ya)对冲(chong)压(ya)件精(jing)度要(yao)(yao)求不(bu)大高,但也有其特定的市场需求,底材(cai)厚(hou)度较厚(hou),不(bu)需要(yao)(yao)切、削、拉伸等工艺,冲(chong)压(ya)材(cai)料是板材(cai),管(guan)材(cai)等等,在(zai)产品单量要(yao)(yao)求不(bu)大时,用普(pu)通冲(chong)压(ya)即可满足要(yao)(yao)求了。

精(jing)(jing)(jing)密冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)和普通冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)不(bu)同(tong)之处就在于对冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)设备的(de)要求(qiu)(qiu)和所需(xu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度高(gao)低。如(ru)果用户(hu)要求(qiu)(qiu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度高(gao)、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)量(liang)大的(de)时候可(ke)以选(xuan)(xuan)择采用精(jing)(jing)(jing)密冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya),反之如(ru)果对冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度要求(qiu)(qiu)不(bu)大高(gao),并(bing)且(qie)是由普通板料进行冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya),选(xuan)(xuan)择普通冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)即可(ke),这(zhei)需(xu)要客户(hu)根据自身(shen)的(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)特征进行选(xuan)(xuan)择。



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