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精密冲压没有想象的那么复杂,学会这些你也会精密冲压

精密冲压没有想象的那么复杂,学会这些你也会精密冲压

发布日期:2017-07-11 作者:福磁电子(zi) 点击:

五金冲压件,福磁电子科(ke)技专业服(fu)务(wu)商!

精(jing)密(mi)冲(chong)压已经成为获取高精(jing)度冲(chong)压件的主要手段,但精(jing)密(mi)冲(chong)压因(yin)为其精(jing)度高、工艺复杂,有着许多与一(yi)般冲(chong)压不同的问题(,可以查看本文章(zhang))。不过精密冲压并没有(you)想(xiang)象的那么(me)复杂,学会这些你也会精密冲压。
一,精密冲压件需要采用精密冲压模具
用(yong)一(yi)般(ban)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)模(mo)(mo)(mo)所得到的冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件,剪(jian)切面(mian)有(you)塌(ta)角、断裂带和毛(mao)刺(ci),还有(you)明显的锥(zhui)度(du),尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)精度(du)一(yi)般(ban)较低,表(biao)面(mian)粗(cu)糙(cao)度(du)Ra为(wei)6.3~12.5um。当对冲(chong)(chong)裁件断面(mian)质(zhi)量和尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)精度(du)有(you)更高要求时(shi)(shi),如(ru)尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)精度(du)为(wei)IT6-7,表(biao)面(mian)粗(cu)糙(cao)度(du)Ra为(wei)0.4一(yi)0.8um,可采用(yong)整(zheng)(zheng)修(xiu)(xiu)、负(fu)间隙冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)、上下(xia)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)和齿(chi)圈压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)板精密冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)方法生(sheng)产,如(ru)图示。整(zheng)(zheng)修(xiu)(xiu)是(shi)利用(yong)整(zheng)(zheng)修(xiu)(xiu)模(mo)(mo)(mo)沿冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件外缘(yuan)或孔内(nei)刮去(qu)薄切屑(xie),从(cong)而获得光(guang)滑而垂(chui)直的断面(mian)和准确(que)尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)。负(fu)间隙冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)时(shi)(shi),凸模(mo)(mo)(mo)尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)大于凹模(mo)(mo)(mo)尺(chi)(chi),冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)出现的裂纹方向与普通冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)相反(fan),形成一(yi)个(ge)(ge)倒锥(zhui)形毛(mao)坯。凸模(mo)(mo)(mo)继续(xu)下(xia)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)时(shi)(shi)(注(zhu)意凸模(mo)(mo)(mo)不能进入凹模(mo)(mo)(mo))将倒锥(zhui)毛(mao)坯压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)人凹模(mo)(mo)(mo)内(nei),相当于整(zheng)(zheng)修(xiu)(xiu)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng),凶此负(fu)间隙冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)法的实质(zhi)是(shi)落料(liao)——整(zheng)(zheng)修(xiu)(xiu)的复合(he)工艺(yi)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)。上下(xia)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)法足用(yong)两个(ge)(ge)凸模(mo)(mo)(mo)从(cong)上、下(xia)两次冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya).冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件,可以(yi)获得两个(ge)(ge)光(guang)亮带,并可清除(chu)毛(mao)刺(ci)。齿(chi)圈压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)板精密冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)实质(zhi)是(shi)整(zheng)(zheng)个(ge)(ge)冲(chong)(chong)切过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong),材料(liao)完全处(chu)于三向压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)应(ying)力状态下(xia)的塑性变形,抑(yi)制了裂纹及撕裂的产生(sheng),得到的冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件切断面(mian)光(guang)洁(jie)、锥(zhui)度(du)小、表(biao)面(mian)平整(zheng)(zheng)、尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)公差等(deng)级高。
精密冲压模具图
二,精密冲压要避免产生撕裂

精(jing)冲(chong)时为了抑(yi)制(zhi)冲(chong)压(ya)过程中(zhong)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)产(chan)生撕裂(lie)(lie),保证塑(su)性(xing)变形过程的(de)(de)(de)进行(xing),采取(qu)了下述(shu)措(cuo)施:1、用(yong)v形齿压(ya)边圈(quan)压(ya)住材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)。避免(mian)板料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)弯(wan)曲(qu)翘起;2、采用(yong)小(xiao)冲(chong)压(ya)间隙(xi)。精(jing)冲(chong)的(de)(de)(de)双面冲(chong)压(ya)间隙(xi)大约是材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)厚度(du)的(de)(de)(de)1%-1.5%,使(shi)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)始终(zhong)保持和冲(chong)压(ya)方向垂直,以减(jian)少变形区(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)(de)弯(wan)曲(qu)变形,不产(chan)生拉应(ying)力(li),构成压(ya)应(ying)力(li)塑(su)性(xing)变形的(de)(de)(de)条件(jian);3、利(li)用(yong)压(ya)边力(li)和顶杆(gan)的(de)(de)(de)反压(ya)力(li),将材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)变形区(qu)(qu)紧紧压(ya)紧,使(shi)之处于二向受压(ya)状态,并(bing)提高变形区(qu)(qu)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)静水(shui)压(ya)力(li),以提高材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)翅(chi)性(xing),抑(yi)制(zhi)裂(lie)(lie)纹和撕裂(lie)(lie)的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)生。将凹模(mo)或凸模(mo)刃口做成很小(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)圆角(jiao),一般圆角(jiao)半(ban)径为0.05mm~0.1mm,以减(jian)少刃口处的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)力(li)集中(zhong),避免(mian)或延缓裂(lie)(lie)纹的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)生。

三,精密冲压要使用精密冲床
精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)冲工(gong)艺(yi)过程要求设备同(tong)时提(ti)供(gong)(gong)冲压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)、压(ya)(ya)边(bian)力(li)(li)和反(fan)顶力(li)(li),通常(chang)在(zai)(zai)(zai)专用的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)冲压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机上(shang)进行。普(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)通压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机一般(ban)不(bu)能同(tong)时提(ti)供(gong)(gong)这三个力(li)(li)及其(qi)运动(dong),而且在(zai)(zai)(zai)压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机的(de)(de)刚(gang)性上(shang)和运动(dong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)度上(shang)较差,故不(bu)宜在(zai)(zai)(zai)普(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)通压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机上(shang)进行精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)密冲压(ya)(ya),除非采取一定的(de)(de)技术(shu)措(cuo)施,如加装(zhuang)(zhuang)机械或液压(ya)(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置提(ti)供(gong)(gong)压(ya)(ya)边(bian)力(li)(li)和反(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),才能在(zai)(zai)(zai)通用压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机上(shang)实现(xian)(xian)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)冲。采用液压(ya)(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置提(ti)供(gong)(gong)压(ya)(ya)边(bian)力(li)(li)和反(fan)顶力(li)(li),压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)均衡平衡,可按工(gong)艺(yi)要求在(zai)(zai)(zai)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)冲过程中实现(xian)(xian)保压(ya)(ya)或减(jian)压(ya)(ya),控制(zhi)简便,因(yin)此普(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)通压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)机上(shang)的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)冲技术(shu),其(qi)压(ya)(ya)边(bian)力(li)(li)和反(fan)压(ya)(ya)为普(pu)(pu)(pu)(pu)遍采用液压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)实现(xian)(xian)。

四,精密冲压的模具间隙不能太大
小(xiao)间(jian)(jian)隙(xi)是(shi)精冲模(mo)(mo)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要特征。间(jian)(jian)隙(xi)的(de)(de)(de)大小(xiao)及(ji)其沿(yan)刃口(kou)周边的(de)(de)(de)均(jun)匀(yun)性,直接影响(xiang)精冲零件剪切(qie)面(mian)质(zhi)量。精冲问隙(xi)主(zhu)要取决于材(cai)料厚度,也和(he)冲压轮廓(kuo)及(ji)工件的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)质(zhi)有(you)关。间(jian)(jian)隙(xi)太(tai)大,剪切(qie)面(mian)有(you)撕(si)裂(lie)。这是(shi)因(yin)(yin)为间(jian)(jian)隙(xi)过大,变形(xing)区(qu)材(cai)料受到较大的(de)(de)(de)拉伸作用(yong),并产(chan)(chan)生拉应力,而拉应力正是(shi)诱导(dao)产(chan)(chan)生微裂(lie)纹(wen)及(ji)撕(si)裂(lie)的(de)(de)(de)原因(yin)(yin),因(yin)(yin)此,精密冲压的(de)(de)(de)凸、凹模(mo)(mo)间(jian)(jian)隙(xi)不能太(tai)大。

五,精密冲压的压边力不能太小
精(jing)冲(chong)时常采用(yong)(yong)V形(xing)齿(chi)圈(quan)压(ya)(ya)板(ban)进行(xing)强力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)压(ya)(ya)边(bian)(bian)(bian)。V形(xing)齿(chi)圈(quan)压(ya)(ya)板(ban)的(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)是:1、防止(zhi)剪(jian)切(qie)区以外的(de)(de)(de)材料(liao)(liao)在剪(jian)切(qie)过翟中随凸模流人;2、夹紧材料(liao)(liao),在精(jing)冲(chong)过程中使材料(liao)(liao)始终和冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)方(fang)向垂直而(er)不(bu)翘起(qi);3、提供强大的(de)(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),在变(bian)形(xing)区建立三向压(ya)(ya)应力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)状(zhuang)态,消除(chu)或(huo)阻(zu)止(zhi)因拉应力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)引起(qi)的(de)(de)(de)裂(lie)(lie)纹的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)生,防止(zhi)切(qie)断(duan)面产(chan)生撕裂(lie)(lie)。为了(le)保证冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)件的(de)(de)(de)剪(jian)切(qie)质量(liang),降低动(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)消耗和提高模具(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)寿命,必须正(zheng)确计算和设(she)定(ding)压(ya)(ya)边(bian)(bian)(bian)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),压(ya)(ya)边(bian)(bian)(bian)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)太(tai)小,变(bian)形(xing)区材料(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)静水压(ya)(ya)应力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)低,不(bu)利于抑制裂(lie)(lie)纹,在剪(jian)切(qie)面产(chan)生撕裂(lie)(lie),影响剪(jian)切(qie)面质量(liang)。压(ya)(ya)边(bian)(bian)(bian)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)太(tai)大,则产(chan)生过大的(de)(de)(de)动(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)消耗,使模具(ju)(ju)结构复(fu)杂,并降低了(le)模具(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)寿命。因此,在实际工艺过程中,压(ya)(ya)边(bian)(bian)(bian)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)要进行(xing)调试(shi)

六,精密冲压的反压力不能太小
反(fan)(fan)(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)是影响精(jing)(jing)冲(chong)(chong)件(jian)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)重要(yao)因素。较(jiao)大的(de)(de)反(fan)(fan)(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)可以提高变(bian)形区材料(liao)的(de)(de)静(jing)水压(ya)(ya)应力(li),抑制拉裂纹(wen),有助于提高精(jing)(jing)冲(chong)(chong)件(jian)的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)。但反(fan)(fan)(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)过(guo)大会(hui)增加凸模(mo)的(de)(de)负(fu)载(zai),降低(di)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)模(mo)具的(de)(de)使(shi)用寿命。反(fan)(fan)(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)太小会(hui)影响冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)尺(chi)寸(cun)精(jing)(jing)度、平(ping)面度、塌角和剪切(qie)面质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)。反(fan)(fan)(fan)压(ya)(ya)力(li)较(jiao)小,精(jing)(jing)冲(chong)(chong)件(jian)塌角大,冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)表面不平(ping),中(zhong)间拱起。因此,和压(ya)(ya)边力(li)一样均(jun)需在实际(ji)工艺(yi)过(guo)程中(zhong),在保(bao)证冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)前提下(xia)尽(jin)量(liang)(liang)调到下(xia)限值。

七,精冲的搭边值不能太小
因为精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)时齿(chi)圈压板要压紧材料,齿(chi)形尺寸使得精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)搭(da)(da)边值(zhi)比普通冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压时要大些。精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)排(pai)样图设(she)汁与普通冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压的(de)设(she)计原则基本(ben)相同,精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)搭(da)(da)边值(zhi)的(de)正确选取与否对精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)件的(de)质量(liang)(liang)影(ying)响很大,一般来(lai)说(shuo),搭(da)(da)边值(zhi)越(yue)火,有利于提高精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)断(duan)呵(he)质量(liang)(liang),但不经济。因此,在选择精冲(chong)(chong)(chong)搭(da)(da)边值(zhi)时,应在满(man)足切(qie)断(duan)面质量(liang)(liang)的(de)条(tiao)件下(xia)选择最小值(zhi)。

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